Groovy Apache Groovy

Groovy List Processing Cheat Sheet

by paulk


Posted on Sunday August 28, 2022 at 08:46AM in Technology


Declaring lists

Several styles are supported for declaring lists:

var pets    = ['cat', 'canary', 'dog', 'fish', 'gerbil']  // idiomatic Groovy
var nums = [1, 2, 3, 4] as LinkedList // use 'as' for other kinds of list
var primes = List.of(2, 3, 5, 7) // Java 9+ style (immutable)
var range = 1..4 // a range is also a list (immutable)
var bigNums = [1000, 2000].asUnmodifiable() // unmodifiable (backed by original)
var negNums = [-100, -200].asImmutable() // immutable (backed by copy)

List elements and properties

Java methods for accessing list elements and list properties:

assert !pets.isEmpty()
assert pets.size() == 5
assert pets.get(0) == 'cat'
assert pets.contains('dog')
assert pets.containsAll('cat', 'dog')
pets.forEach { assert it.size() > 2 }
assert ['a', 'b', 'a'].indexOf('a') == 0
assert ['a', 'b', 'a'].lastIndexOf('a') == 2

Groovy extensions for accessing list elements and list properties:

assert pets[0] == 'cat'
assert pets?[0] == 'cat' // safe indexing returns null if pets was null instead of NPE
assert pets.first() == 'cat'
assert pets.head() == 'cat'
assert pets[-1] == 'gerbil'
assert pets[1..3] == ['canary', 'dog', 'fish']
assert pets[3..1] == ['fish', 'dog', 'canary'] // reverse range
assert pets[1, 3, 3] == ['canary', 'fish', 'fish'] // arbitrary collection
assert pets[0..1, [3, 3]] == ['cat', 'canary', 'fish', 'fish'] // nested collections
assert [1, 2, 3, 1].count(1) == 2
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].min() == 1
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].max() == 4
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].sum() == 10
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].average() == 2.5
[1, 2, 3, 4].eachWithIndex{ val, idx -> assert val == idx + 1 }
def cpets = pets[0..1]
assert cpets == ['cat', 'canary']
assert pets.findAll { it =~ /c.*/ } == cpets
assert pets.find { it =~ /c.*/ } == cpets[0]
assert pets.grep(~/c.*/) == cpets
assert cpets.min { it.size() } == 'cat' // cpet with smallest size name
assert cpets.max { it.size() } == 'canary' // cpet with largest name
assert pets.groupBy { it.size() } == [3: ['cat', 'dog'], 4: ['fish'], 6: ['canary', 'gerbil']]
assert pets.countBy { it.size() } == [3: 2, 4: 1, 6: 2]
assert pets.sum{ it.size() } == 22 // total size of all pet names
assert pets.average{ it.size() } == 4.4 // average size of pet names
assert pets.indices == 0..4
assert pets.findIndexValues { it.size() == 6 } == [1, 4]
assert cpets.indexed() == [0: 'cat', 1: 'canary']
assert cpets.withIndex()*.toList() == [['cat', 0], ['canary', 1]]

Modifying mutable lists

Methods from Java for modifying lists:

pets.remove(2);                        assert pets == ['cat', 'canary', 'fish', 'gerbil']  // remove by index
pets.remove('fish'); assert pets == ['cat', 'canary', 'gerbil'] // remove by element
pets.removeIf(p -> p.startsWith("c")); assert pets == ['gerbil'] // remove by condition
pets.clear(); assert pets.isEmpty() // make empty
pets.add("kangaroo"); assert pets == ['kangaroo'] // add element
pets.add(0, "koala"); assert pets == ['koala', 'kangaroo'] // add element at index position
pets.addAll(['ant', 'bee']); assert pets == ['koala', 'kangaroo', 'ant', 'bee'] // add collection
pets.addAll(1, ['ant']); assert pets == ['koala', 'ant', 'kangaroo', 'ant', 'bee'] // add collection at index
pets.removeAll(['ant', 'flea']); assert pets == ['koala', 'kangaroo', 'bee'] // remove from collection
pets.retainAll(['bee', 'koala']); assert pets == ['koala', 'bee'] // retain from collection
pets.set(0, "zebra"); assert pets == ['zebra', 'bee'] // set element at index
pets.replaceAll(String::toUpperCase); assert pets == ['ZEBRA', 'BEE'] // replace elements by unary operator
pets.sort(Comparator.naturalOrder()); assert pets == ['BEE', 'ZEBRA'] // sort

Groovy extensions for modifying lists:

pets << 'rock';                        assert pets == ['BEE', 'ZEBRA', 'rock']  // leftShift append
pets += ['rabbit', 'rock', 'hare']; assert pets == ['BEE', 'ZEBRA', 'rock', 'rabbit', 'rock', 'hare'] // append collection
pets.unique(); assert pets == ['BEE', 'ZEBRA', 'rock', 'rabbit', 'hare'] // remove duplicates
pets.sort{ it.size() }; assert pets == ['BEE', 'rock', 'hare', 'ZEBRA', 'rabbit'] // sort by size
pets[0] = 'ant'; assert pets == ['ant', 'rock', 'hare', 'ZEBRA', 'rabbit'] // replace element by index
pets[1..3] = ['snake', 'SNAKE']; assert pets == ['ant', 'snake', 'SNAKE', 'rabbit'] // replace range of elements
pets.unique{it.toLowerCase() }; assert pets == ['ant', 'snake', 'rabbit'] // remove duplicates ignoring case
pets.reverse(true); assert pets == ['rabbit', 'snake', 'ant'] // flip
pets.shuffle(); assert pets.size() == 3; // shuffle elements; resulting order will vary
def dice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
dice.removeAt(2); assert dice == [1, 2, 4, 5, 6]
dice.removeElement(2); assert dice == [1, 4, 5, 6]
dice.removeLast(); assert dice == [1, 4, 5]
dice.swap(0, 2); assert dice == [5, 4, 1]

Additional list functionality

Methods and operators which return new lists or values:

assert [1, 2, 3] + [1] == [1, 2, 3, 1]
assert [1, 2, 3, 1] - [1] == [2, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3] * 2 == [1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3]
assert [1, [2, 3]].flatten() == [1, 2, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3].disjoint([4, 5, 6])
assert [1, 2, 3].intersect([4, 3, 1]) == [1, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3].collect { it + 3 } == [4, 5, 6]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].collect { 1 } == [1, 1, 1, 1]
assert [4, 2, 1, 3].findAll { it % 2 == 0 } == [4, 2]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].take(3) == [1, 2, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].takeRight(3) == [2, 3, 4]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].takeWhile{ it < 3 } == [1, 2]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].drop(2) == [3, 4]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].dropRight(2) == [1, 2]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].dropWhile{it < 3 } == [3, 4]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].join('-') == '1-2-3-4'
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].tail() == [2, 3, 4]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].init() == [1, 2, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].tails() == [[1, 2, 3, 4], [2, 3, 4], [3, 4], [4], []]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].inits() == [[1, 2, 3, 4], [1, 2, 3], [1, 2], [1], []]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].reverse() == [4, 3, 2, 1]
assert [1, 2, 3, 1].toUnique() == [1, 2, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3, 1].toSorted() == [1, 1, 2, 3]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].collect { it * 2 } == [2, 4, 6, 8]
assert [[1, 2], [3, 4]].collectNested { it * 2 } == [[2, 4], [6, 8]]
def squaresAndCubesOfEvens = { it % 2 ? [] : [it**2, it**3] }
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].collectMany(squaresAndCubesOfEvens) == [4, 8, 16, 64]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].any { it > 3 }
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].every { it < 5 }
assert ![1, 2, 3, 4].every { it > 3 }
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].find { it > 2 } == 3
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].findAll { it > 2 } == [3, 4]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].findIndexOf { it > 2 } == 2
assert [1, 2, 3, 1].findLastIndexOf { it > 2 } == 2
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].inject { acc, i -> acc + i } == 10
assert (1..10).collate(3) == [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9], [10]]
assert (1..10).chop(1, 3, 2, -1) == [[1], [2, 3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8, 9, 10]]
assert [1,2,3].permutations().toList() == [
[1, 2, 3], [3, 2, 1], [2, 1, 3], [3, 1, 2], [1, 3, 2], [2, 3, 1]
]
def matrix = [['a', 'b'], [ 1 , 2 ]]
assert matrix.transpose() == [ ['a', 1], ['b', 2] ]
assert matrix.combinations() == [ ['a', 1], ['b', 1], ['a', 2], ['b', 2] ]
assert [1, 2, 3].subsequences()*.toList() == [[1], [1, 2, 3], [2], [2, 3], [1, 2], [3], [1, 3]]
def answers = [1, 2, 3].withDefault{ 42 }
assert answers[2] == 3 && answers[99] == 42

GINQ processing

Groovy also supports language integrated query support to process lists:

// squares of odd numbers between 1 and 5
assert [1, 9, 25] == GQL {
from n in 1..5 where n % 2 != 0 select n ** 2
}

// group pets by name size
assert ["3:[cat, dog]", "4:[fish]", "6:[canary, gerbil]"] == GQL {
from p in pets
groupby p.size() as size
select size, agg(p) as names
}*.with{ "$it.size:$it.names" }

Stream methods

Useful stream methods (it is worthwhile comparing some of the examples to earlier non-stream variants):

pets = ['cat', 'canary', 'dog', 'fish', 'gerbil']
assert pets.stream().filter(p -> p.size() == 3).map(String::toUpperCase).toList() == ['CAT', 'DOG']
assert pets.stream().map(p -> p.size()).distinct().sorted().toList() == [3, 4, 6] // ordered pet name sizes
assert nums.stream().reduce{ a, b -> a + b }.get() == 10
assert (1..10).stream().skip(3).limit(5).filter(i -> i % 2 == 0).map(i -> i ** 2).toList() == [16, 36, 64]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].stream().flatMap(i -> i % 2 ? Stream.empty() : Stream.of(i**2, i**3)).toList() == [4, 8, 16, 64]
assert pets.stream().collect(Collectors.groupingBy(p -> p.size())) == [3:['cat', 'dog'], 4:['fish'], 6:['canary', 'gerbil']]
assert [1, 2, 3, 4].stream().map(Integer::toString).collect(Collectors.joining('-')) == '1-2-3-4'
Arrays.stream(0..9 as int[]).summaryStatistics().with {
assert sum == 45 && min == 0 && max == 9 && average == 4.5 && count == 10
}
assert pets.stream().allMatch(w -> w ==~ /.*[aeiou].*/) // all pet names contain a vowel

GPars

Before looking at GPars, it is worth looking at parallel stream processing:

// calculate squares of odd numbers from input list
assert (1..5).parallelStream().filter{ it % 2 != 0 }.map(n -> n ** 2).toList() == [1, 9, 25]

GPars was designed to provide similar functionality long before streams processing was available. It still has some useful features.

Groovy has several tricks for removing the outer "withPool" clauses but we'll do the longhand here. Two GPars variations of above streams example:

GParsPool.withPool {
assert (1..5).findAllParallel{ it % 2 }.collectParallel{ it ** 2 } == [1, 9, 25]
assert (1..5).parallel.filter{ it % 2 }.map{ it ** 2 }.collection == [1, 9, 25]
}

Or using (JEP 425) virtual threads:

GParsExecutorsPool.withExistingPool(Executors.newVirtualThreadPerTaskExecutor()) {
assert (1..5).findAllParallel{ it % 2 }.collectParallel{ it ** 2 } == [1, 9, 25]
}

Other libraries

There are numerous list-related libraries on the JVM. We'll look at just a few.

Eclipse collections

Eclipse collections comes with many container types including immutable collections, primitive collections, bimaps, multimaps and bags as well as numerous utility methods. It focuses on reduced memory footprint and efficient containers. It might be particularly of interest if you need primitive collections, immutable collections or some more exotic collection types like bag or bidirectional maps. Here are just a few examples:

var certainties = Lists.immutable.of('death', 'taxes')
assert certainties.reduce{ a, b -> "$a & $b" }.get() == 'death & taxes'
var numBag = Bags.immutable.with('One', 'One', 'Two', 'Three')
assert numBag.toMapOfItemToCount() == [One:2, Two:1, Three:1]
var biMap = BiMaps.immutable.with(6, "six", 2, "two")
assert biMap.inverse().six == 6

Guava

Guava provides a number of extensions to the JDK collections ecosystem. In particular, it has immutable collections, new collection types like multisets and bidirectional maps and various powerful extensions and utilities. Here are a few examples:

var set = TreeMultiset.create([1, 2, 3])
assert set == TreeMultiset.create([3, 2, 1])
set.addAll([1, 3, 5])
assert set.size() == 6 && set.elementSet().size() == 4
assert set.toList() == [1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 5]
var bimap = HashBiMap.create()
bimap.five = 5
assert bimap.inverse()[5] == 'five'

Apache Commons Collections

The Apache Commons Collections library extends upon the JDK collections framework adding some new types like bidirectional maps and bags as well as providing many comparator and iterator implementations. The library was designed to fill gaps in the JDK offerings and while some of those gaps in the JDK have now been filled by the JDK itself, Commons Collections still contains much useful functionality. Here are a few examples:

var six = [six: 6] as TreeBidiMap
assert six.inverseBidiMap() == [6: 'six']
var bag = new HashBag(['one'] * 6)
bag.remove('one', 2)
assert bag.getCount('one') == 4

Further Information

Conclusion

We have looked at the more common methods for list processing with Groovy and a few other useful libraries.




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