Entries tagged [success]
Success At Apache: Positively impacting the world one contribution at a time
Dinesh Joshi is a Senior Software Engineer and a Committer on the Apache Cassandra project. He has a Masters in Computer Science (Distributed Systems & Databases) from Georgia Tech, Atlanta. In the past, Dinesh was a Principal Software Engineer at Yahoo building real time distributed systems for Yahoo’s Finance Web, iOS & Android apps. He is also an international speaker and regularly talks about Apache Cassandra and Databases. In his spare time, he volunteers as a mentor for Women Who Code.
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"Success at Apache" is a monthly blog series that focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/category/SuccessAtApache
Posted at 04:36AM Apr 01, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
The Apache® Software Foundation Celebrates 20 Years of Community-led Development "The Apache Way"
World's largest Open Source foundation provides $20B+ worth of software for the public good at 100% no cost; Apache software used in every Internet-connected country on the planet.
Wakefield, MA —26 March 2019— The Apache Software Foundation (ASF), the all-volunteer developers, stewards, and incubators of more than 350 Open Source projects and initiatives, announced today its 20th Anniversary, celebrating "The Apache Way" of community-driven development as the key to its success.
The world's largest Open Source foundation is home to dozens of freely-available (no cost), enterprise-grade Apache projects that serve as the backbone for some of the most visible and widely used applications. The ubiquity of Apache software is undeniable, with Apache projects managing exabytes of data, executing teraflops of operations, and storing billions of objects in virtually every industry. Apache software is an integral part of nearly every end user computing device, from laptops to tablets to phones.
"What started before the term 'Open Source' was coined has now grown to support hundreds of projects, thousands of contributors and millions of users," said Phil Steitz, Chairman of The Apache Software Foundation. "The Apache Way has shown itself to be incredibly resilient in the wake of the many changes in software and technology over the last twenty years. As the business and technology ecosystems around our projects have grown, our community-based open development model has evolved but remained true to the core principles established in the early days of the Foundation. We remain committed to the simple idea that open, community-led development produces great software and when you make that software freely available with no restrictions on how it can be used or integrated, the communities that develop it get stronger. The resulting virtuous cycle has been profoundly impactful on the software industry as a whole and on those of us who have had the good fortune of volunteering here. When we celebrate fifty years, I am sure that we will say the same thing."
Software for the Public Good
In 1999, 21 founders, including original members of the Apache Group (creators of the Apache HTTP Server; the World's most popular Web server since 1996) formed The Apache Software Foundation to provide software for the public good. The ASF's flagship project, the Apache HTTP Server, continues development under the auspices of the ASF, and has grown to serve more than 80 million Websites worldwide.
"The most successful revolutions are those birthed by Passion and Necessity. What keeps them going are Communities," said ASF co-founder Jim Jagielski. "Congratulations to the ASF and to everyone who has had a hand, large and small, in making it into who and what we are today."
The Apache Way
The open, community-driven process behind the development of the Apache HTTP Server formed the model adopted by future Apache projects as well as emulated by other Open Source foundations. Dubbed "The Apache Way", the principles underlying the ASF embrace:
- Earned Authority: all individuals are given the opportunity to participate, and their influence is based on publicly-earned merit – what they contribute to the community. Merit lies with the individual, does not expire, is not influenced by employment status or employer, and is non-transferable.
- Community of Peers: participation at the ASF is done through individuals, not organizations. Its flat structure dictates that the Apache community is respectful of each other, roles are equal, votes hold equal weight, and contributors are doing so on a volunteer basis (even if paid to work on Apache code).
- Open Communications: as a virtual organization, the ASF requires all communications be made online, via email. Most Apache lists are archived and publicly accessible to ensure asynchronous collaboration, as required by a globally-distributed community.
- Consensus Decision Making: Apache Projects are auto-governing with a heavy slant towards driving consensus to maintain momentum and productivity. Whilst total consensus is not possible to establish at all times, holding a vote or other coordination may be required to help remove any blocks with binding decisions.
- Responsible Oversight: the ASF governance model is based on trust and delegated oversight, with self-governing projects providing reports directly to the Board. Apache Committers help each other by making peer-reviewed commits, employing mandatory security measures, ensuring license compliance, and protecting the Apache brand and community at-large from abuse.
The ASF is strictly vendor neutral. No organization is able to gain special privileges or control a project's direction, irrespective of employing staff to work on Apache projects or sponsorship status.
The ASF Today
Behind the ASF is an all-volunteer community comprising 730 individual Members and 7,000 Committers stewarding 200M+ lines of code that benefit billions of users worldwide.
Lauded as one of the industry's most influential communities, the ASF develops and incubates 350+ Open Source projects and initiatives that are made available to the public-at-large at 100% no cost. The ASF has become an invaluable resource for users and developers alike, drawing 35M page views per week across http://apache.org/ ; 9M+ source code downloads from Apache mirrors (excluding convenience binaries), and Web requests received from every Internet-connected country on the planet.
"Over the past two decades, few institutions have been as important for the advancement and growth of Open Source as The Apache Software Foundation," said Stephen O'Grady, Principal Analyst with RedMonk. "By providing a neutral environment for developers from diverse backgrounds to work together, the ASF has played a pivotal role in the history of Open Source, and appears poised to continue in this role for the next decade."
The membership-based, not-for-profit charitable organization ensures that Apache projects continue to exist beyond the participation of individual volunteers by building diverse communities that develop and support software.
At the ASF, all software development and project leadership is executed entirely by volunteers. The ASF Board and officers are all volunteers. The ASF does not pay for development: thousands of committed individuals help make a difference to the lives of billions of people by ensuring that Apache software remains accessible to all.
The Apache maxim "Community Over Code" underscores that a healthy community is far more important than good code. In the event that the code would dematerialize, a strong community could rewrite it; however, if a community is unhealthy, the code will eventually fail as well.
The merit-driven "Contributor-Committer-Member" approach is the central governing process across the Apache ecosystem. The core Apache Group of 21 individuals grew with developers who contributed code, patches, or documentation. Some of these contributors were subsequently granted "Committer" status by the Membership, and provided access to: 1) commit (write) directly to the code repository, 2) vote on community-related decisions, and 3) propose an active user for Committership. Those Committers who demonstrate merit in the Foundation's growth, evolution, and progress are nominated for ASF Membership by existing members.
Powered by Apache
"The most popular Open Source software is Apache..."
— DZone "What Open Source Software Do You Use?"
Apache software is used in every Internet-connected country on the planet. Apache projects serve as the backbone for some of the world’s most visible and widely used applications in Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning, Big Data, build management, Cloud Computing, content management, DevOps, IoT and Edge computing, mobile, servers, and Web frameworks, among many other categories. Examples of the breadth of applications that are "Powered by Apache" include:
- Panama Papers: library, search, and document management tools used in the 2.6TB Pulitzer Prize-winning investigation;
- US Federal Aviation Administration: system-wide information management to enable every airplane take off and land in US airspace;
- Netflix: data ingestion pipeline and stream processing 3 trillion events each day;
- Uber: handling 1M writes per second for 99.99% availability to users and drivers;
- Mobile app developers: unifying mobile application development across Blackberry, Android, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone, and iOS operating systems;
- Facebook: processing requests at 300-petabyte data warehouse, connecting 2B+ active users;
- NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory: accessing content across multi-mission, multi-instrument science data systems;
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility: managing 1B+ occurrence records for open access to data about all types of life on Earth;
- European Space Agency: powering new mission control system and next-generation simulators infrastructure;
- Adobe: powering I/O Runtime and the core of Experience Manager;
- IBM Watson: advancing data intelligence and semantics capabilities to win first-ever "Man vs. Machine" competition on Jeopardy!
- Boston Children's Hospital: linking phenotypic and genomic data for the Precision Link Biobank
- Target.com: driving $1B+ in revenue through Big Data optimization;
- AOL: ingesting 20TB+ of data per day;
- Minecraft: bundling libraries to modify the second most popular video game of all time;
- Novopay: serving as a transactional backbone to processes $80M+ each month;
- Formula 1, Audi, and Daimler: streaming data in vehicles in real time;
- Twitter: processing and analyzing more than a Zettabyte of raw data through 200B+ tweets annually;
- Pinterest: processing 800B+ daily events;
- Amazon Music: tuning recommendations for 16M+ subscribers;
- NASA: powering Big Earth and Ocean Science data analytics;
And, from Accumulo to Zipkin (incubating), more than six dozen Apache projects form the foundation of the $166B Big Data ecosystem.
Apache software is overseen by a self-selected team of active contributors to the project. A Project Management Committee (PMC) guides the Project's day-to-day operations, including community development and product releases.
Over the past two decades, 1,058,321,099 lines of Apache code were committed over 3,022,836 commits. The ASF codebase is conservatively valued at least $20B, using the COCOMO 2 model. All Apache software is released under the Apache License v2.0.
"If It Didn't Happen On-list...It Didn't Happen"
Since the ASF's founding, 351,067 authors sent 19,587,835 emails on 8,529,590 topics across 1,131 mailing lists.
The Apache Incubator is the entry path for projects and codebases wishing to become part of the efforts at The Apache Software Foundation. All code donations from external organizations and existing external projects enter through the Incubator to: 1) ensure all donations are in accordance with the ASF legal standards; and 2) develop new communities that adhere to our guiding principles. Incubation is required of all newly accepted projects until a further review indicates that the infrastructure, communications, and decision making process have stabilized in a manner consistent with other successful ASF projects.
Since the ASF's founding, 199 projects have successfully graduated from the Apache Incubator. Today, 52 projects are in development, applying The Apache Way to innovations in annotation, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, cryptography, data science, development environments, Edge and IoT, email; JavaEE, libraries, Machine Learning, serverless computing, and many more categories.
"Wow, is it 20 years already? Congratulations to the ASF! I've always been a big believer and advocate of Open Source, but when we founded the ASF 20 years ago I certainly didn't expect *this* level of growth and success," said ASF co-founder Lars Eilebrecht. "I'm very proud that the ASF - despite many challenges - has remained true to its core values and the Apache Way of Open Source development. The ASF has had a very big and positive impact on the overall IT industry, and I'm certain that the industry and the Internet would look very different today without the ASF's involvement in the rise of Open Source!"
Apache License v2.0
"Apache-style licensing may yield more adoption and money."
— Matt Asay, c|net
The commercially-friendly and permissive Apache License v2.0 has become an Open Source industry standard. Its popularity has led to the rise in corporate contribution in Open Source, and is behind the launch of dozens of billion dollar companies, and is facilitating the adoption of some of the world's fastest-growing Open Source projects.
"I'd like to congratulate the Apache Software Foundation for growing and demonstrating a working model for open source development that has stood the test of time," said ASF co-founder Randy Terbush. "I am forever grateful for the opportunities that my participation in the ASF gave me and I am very proud of what the group has become."
- Apache Roadshow/Washington DC 25, March 2019
- Apache Roadshow/Chicago, 13-14 May 2019
- ApacheCon North America/Las Vegas, 9-12 September 2019
- ApacheCon Europe/Berlin, 22-24 October 2019
"My Apache journey started in the Apache HTTP core development team in 1995, fixing security issues and continues today as VP of Security," said ASF co-founder Mark Cox. "In the years between, Apache has inextricably intertwined my professional career and my personal life. I'm proud to be part of the ASF as we move past 20 years and look forward to a celebration (hopefully with cake) at ApacheCon in September."
"Happy Birthday, Apache Group!" echoed ASF co-founder Bill Stoddard.
The Apache Software Foundation plans to continue to innovate "The Apache Way" with new Open Source projects and communities for years to come. Donations to the ASF help keep Apache software available to everyone.
- "From our first contributions to The Apache Software Foundation in 2006 until today, the ASF has been teaching us and everyone how to do community driven Open Source. We thank the ASF, their communities and all who have been involved! Congratulations on 20 years of volunteer-led service, and the many accomplishments with code and community. We look forward to collaborating on the next 20." –Adrian Cockcroft, VP Cloud Strategy at AWS
- "The Apache Software Foundation and OSI both turned 20 recently. As two of the founding organizations of the Open Source community, they are fundamental to its growth and success. The Apache Way ensures all participants have equal representation and footing, and developers are valued based on their contributions' merits. Bloomberg developers first got involved as Open Source community collaborators and contributors seven years ago, and we've been involved with – and a sponsor of – the ASF almost this entire time, as it’s the home of dozens of projects that are incredibly important to us." –Kevin Fleming, Head of Open Source Community Engagement and Member of the CTO Office at Bloomberg
- "Congratulations to The Apache Software Foundation on 20 years of ground-breaking software development and Open Source community leadership. The ASF has provided value to Cerner for more than 15 years through innovative projects and rich communities. We can count on the ASF to be the source of high-quality, foundational software and to provide a collaborative community that makes it easy for our engineers to grow." –Nathan Beyer, VP & Chief Engineer at Cerner, and ASF Member
- "The Apache Software Foundation provides a fertile home for software communities. The Foundation’s unique approach has created many industry standards and will likely continue to do so for many more years. Apache projects are famous not just for great technology, but for their longevity and vendor-independence. Cloudera looks forward to continuing to collaborate with others at Apache for decades to come." –Doug Cutting, Chief Architect at Cloudera
- "Datadog is a proud sponsor of The Apache Software Foundation. What an amazing journey it's been, from a small group of developers working on httpd to a foundation that stewards some truly amazing Open Source projects. As a consumer and contributor to many of those projects, it's difficult to understate the impact they've had; not only on us but on the software industry as a whole. Congratulations on 20 years!" –Jeremy Garcia, Director of Technical Community and Open Source at Datadog
- "After twenty years of practicing Open Source law, I appreciate how critical The Apache Software Foundation has been to the success of the OSS ecosystem. I am honored to work with the Foundation and its members." –Mark Radcliffe, Partner at DLA Piper
- "We look forward to another 20 years of Open Source software with The Apache Software Foundation! We were excited to be one of the first corporate members in 2005, and even more excited to select the Apache license for Android in 2008. There's very few organizations that have shown the persistent dedication to Open Source the way that the ASF has and we're proud to be a part of it as a sponsor and to have so many of our engineers contributing to Apache projects." –Chris DiBona, Director of Open Source at Google
- "From an auspicious launch with the Apache HTTP Server to over 350 projects today, Apache continues to drive innovation in the industry and IBM is proud to have supported its founding. With dozens new projects coming to the ASF each year, from Artificial Intelligence to Deep Learning, Big Data, Cloud Computing, DevOps, IoT and Edge Computing, Mobile, Servers, and Web Frameworks, The Apache Software Foundation is an anchor for world-changing Open Source projects. We look forward to continued contributions and collaboration for many years to come." –Todd Moore, Vice President of Open Technology and Developer Advocacy at IBM
- "It's an honor and a privilege to help Apache, an organization so deeply ingrained in the history and growth of the Internet, fundraise online. Congratulations on 20 years, and cheers to the next 20!" –Alex Morse, CEO at Hopsie
- "Congratulations on ASF's 20th Anniversary! The mission of ASF is to provide software for the public good. Modern technology development is based on extensive collaboration. Our goal is to build the open ICT solution for global customers through collaboration with ecosystem partners. In the spirit of The Apache Way, Huawei actively participated in the ASF, contributed two, now Top-Level, projects: Apache CarbonData and Apache ServiceComb. We appreciate the community culture of ASF, and we thank ASF for making a healthy Open Source software ecosystem a reality." –Evan Xiao, VP of Strategy and Industry Development at Huawei Technologies
- "Leaseweb has been using Apache/ASF projects for a multitude of products and services over the last 20 years. The ASF is responsible for a mindboggling amount of Open Source projects that truly make up the fabric of the Internet. For Leaseweb, the ASF is in the core of many of our Cloud and Hosting platforms. Apart from helping out with our Platinum Sponsorship, Leaseweb would like to thank all developers and other volunteers in ASF and ASF projects for continuing to build software that makes the Internet what it is today. We’re looking forward to another 20 years of innovation, code, and community – and proud to be a small part of that." –Robert van der Meulen, Global Product Strategy Lead at Leaseweb
- "Twenty years ago the ASF's vendor neutral model of Open Source software development was central to the commercialization of the World Wide Web and has continued to accelerate innovation across the IT industry since then. At Microsoft we are committed to ensuring that Azure is the best cloud platform for our partners and customers. A key aspect of delivering on this goal is to contribute to the success of Open Source projects. The ASF's emphasis on vendor neutrality, is key to the success of many Open Source components used by both Microsoft and our partners. Happy Birthday to The Apache Software Foundation." –John Gossman, Lead Architect of Microsoft Azure
- "The Apache Software Foundation has provided stewardship for much of the modern Internet, from the Apache Web Server itself to cutting edge infrastructure and data science technologies such as Kafka and Hadoop. No-IP is built on Open Source software. It is important for us to support Open Source projects and the Apache Foundation has made it easy to give back. We look forward to the Foundation's future work and wise guidance and we are proud to be associated with it." –Dan Durrer, CEO and Owner of No-IP
- "PCCC.com joins the world in celebrating 20 years of Open Source Software from The Apache Software Foundation. Happy Birthday!" –Kevin A. McGrail, CEO Emeritus of Peregrine Computer Consultants Corporation
- "More than being Open Source, Apache values transparency and openness with their users, something PureVPN staunchly believes in, advocates, and follows. Supporting Apache gives us the opportunity to align ourselves with an amazing team of people that makes a difference in the lives of individuals on a daily basis." –Uzair Gadit, CEO at PureVPN
- "The Apache Software Foundation has been a great help in pushing the Open Source agenda to a wide range of individuals, communities, and vendors over the years. Their approach to meritocracy and community-driven development has helped to shape some world class Open Source projects which have gone on to help drive some world-class products and businesses. Keep it up and here's to the next 20 years!" –Mark Little, VP Engineering and CTO JBoss Middleware at Red Hat
- "Tencent Cloud is proud to be the first platinum sponsor of The Apache Software Foundation from China. In years of supporting with Open Source communities, we found Apache is one of the best places to drive great innovations for industry of AI, Big Data, Cloud Computing, DevOps, Edge Computing, IoT, etc. We would like to thank ASF for its outstanding contributions to Open Source world, and celebrate its 20th Anniversary of Open Source collaboration. Tencent Cloud will stand together with ASF and looks forward to long term contributions and collaborations." –Huixing Wang, Vice President of Tencent Cloud
- "The Apache Software Foundation is among the brightest beacons in the global Open Source movement. HotWax is proud to recognize the ASF for harnessing transparency and meritocracy to generate some of the highest quality and most widely used code in the world, for decades now! Happy 20th -- we are honored to be a part of the community." –Mike Bates, CEO, HotWax Systems
- "Contributing to The Apache Software Foundation projects continues to be part of our engineering strategy." –Gil Yehuda, Senior Director of Open Source at Verizon Media
== RESOURCES FOR EDITORS ==
- The Apache Way to Sustainable Open Source Success
- Briefing: The Apache Way
- Our Founders look back on 20 Years of the ASF!
- 20 Years of Open Source Innovation, The Apache Way
- Foundation Reports and Statements
- Video Promo: The ASF at 20
- Video Promo: ApacheCon
- Foundation Highlights 1999-2019
- ASF Press Kit (logos, creative assets)
- Social Media Hashtags: #Apache #ASF20 #TheApacheWay
- Twitter handle @TheASF
About The Apache Software Foundation (ASF)
Established in 1999, the all-volunteer Foundation oversees more than 350 leading Open Source projects, including Apache HTTP Server —the world's most popular Web server software. Through the ASF's merit-based process known as "The Apache Way," more than 730 individual Members and 7,000 Committers across six continents successfully collaborate to develop freely available enterprise-grade software, benefiting billions of users worldwide: thousands of software solutions are distributed under the Apache License; and the community actively participates in ASF mailing lists, mentoring initiatives, and ApacheCon, the Foundation's official user conference, trainings, and expo. The ASF is a US 501(c)(3) charitable organization, funded by individual donations and corporate sponsors including Aetna, Alibaba Cloud Computing, Anonymous, ARM, Baidu, Bloomberg, Budget Direct, Capital One, Cerner, Cloudera, Comcast, Facebook, Google, Handshake, Hortonworks, Huawei, IBM, Indeed, Inspur, Leaseweb, Microsoft, ODPi, Pineapple Fund, Pivotal, Private Internet Access, Red Hat, Target, Tencent, Union Investment, Workday, and Verizon Media. For more information, visit http://apache.org/ and https://twitter.com/TheASF
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Posted at 09:00AM Mar 26, 2019 by Sally in General | |
Success at Apache: What You Need to Know
EDITOR'S NOTE: I came across the author's original post, "An Introduction to Apache Software — What you need to know", dated 3 February 2017, and was interested in finding away to share with the greater Apache community. The author's enthusiasm was palpable, and earnestly intended to help educate others. With the ASF celebrating its 20th Anniversary this year, it's easy for many of us to simply rely on tribal knowledge, not realizing that navigation to definitive guides aren't intuitive to newcomers. Those of us who have been here for a while "just know", partially because we were creating it as we went along. Below is an updated version of the original post, amended through the guidance of three long-standing ASF Members. And that's the point of it all at the end of the day: at Apache, we help each other as it contributes to our collective success, and this writeup will help others find their Success at Apache.
by Maximilian Michels
Before you started reading this post, you have already been using Apache software. The Apache web server (Apache HTTP Server) serves about every second web page on the WWW, including this website. One could say, Apache software runs the WWW. But it doesnt stop there. Apache is more than a web server. Apache software also runs on mobile devices. Apache software is part of enterprise and banking software. Apache software is literally everywhere in today's software world.
Apache has become a powerful brand and a philosophy of software development which remains unmatched in the world of open-source. Although the Apache® trademark is a known term even among the less tech-savvy people, many people struggle to define what Apache software really is about, and what role it plays for today's software development and businesses.
In the last years I've learned a lot about Apache through my work on Apache Flink and Apache Beam with dataArtisans, as a freelancer/consultant, and as a volunteer. In this post I want to give an overview of the Apache Software Foundation and its history. Moreover, I want to show how the "Apache way" of software development has shaped the open-source software development as it is today.
The History of the Foundation
The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) was founded in 1999 by a group of open-source enthusiasts who saw the need to create a legal entity to institutionalize their work. Among the first projects was the famous web server called Apache HTTP, which is also simply referred to as "Apache web server". At that time, the Apache web server was already quite mature. In fact, not only did the Apache web server give the foundation its name but it became the role model for the "Apache way" of open and collaborative software development. To see how that took place, we have to go back a bit further in time.
A Web Server goes a long way
As early as 1994, Rob McCool at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) in Illinois created a simple web server which served pages using one of the early versions of today's HTTP protocol. Web servers were not ubiquitous like they are today. In these days, the Web was still in its early days and there was only one web browser developed at CERN where the WWW was invented only shortly before. Rob's web server was adopted quite fruitfully throughout the web due to its extensible nature. When its source code spread, web page administrators around the world developed extensions for the web server and helped to fix errors. When Rob left the NCSA in late 1994, he also left a void because there was nobody left to maintain the web server along with its extensions. Quickly it became apparent that the group of existing users and developers needed to join forces to be able to maintain NCSA HTTP.
At the beginning of 1995, the Apache Group was formed to coordinate the development of the NCSA HTTP web server. This led to the first release of the Apache web server in April 1995. During the same time, development at NCSA started picking off again and the two teams were in vivid exchange about future ideas to improve the web server. However, the Apache Group was able to develop its version of the web server much faster because of their structure which encouraged worldwide collaboration. At the end of the year, the Apache server had its architecture redone to be modular and it executed much faster.
One year later, at the beginning of 1996, the Apache web server already succeeded the popularity of the NCSA HTTP which had been the most popular web server on the Internet until then. Apache 1.0 finally was released on Dec 1, 1995. The web server continued to thrive and is still the most widely used web browser as of this writing.
The Rise of the Foundation
The team effort that led to the development and adoption of the Apache web server was a huge success. The Apache project kept receiving feedback and code changes (also called patches) from people all over the world. Could this be the development model for future software? More and more projects started to organize their groups similarly to the Apache group. As the number of project grew, financial interests arose and potential legal issues threatened the existence of the Apache group. Out of this need, the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) was incorporated as a US 501(c)(3) non-profit organization in June 1999. In the US, the 501(c)(3) is a legal entity specifically designed for non-profit charitable organizations. This is in contrast to other for-profit open-source software organizations or even US 501(c)(6) non-profit organizations which do not require to be charitable.
After the ASF was incorporated, new projects could easily leverage the foundation's services. Over the next year, every few months a new project entered the ASF. The first projects after Apache HTTP Server were Apache mod_perl (March 2000), Apache tcl (July 2000), and Apache Portable Runtime (December 2000). After a short break in 2001 which was used to come up with a programmatic approach to onboard new projects via an incubator, the ASF has seen very consistent growth of up to 12 projects (2012) each year.
The ASF became a framework for open-source software development which, in its entirety, remains unmatched by other forms of open-source software development. The secret of ASF's success is its unique approach to scaling its operations, in which the foundation does not try to exercise control over its projects. Instead, it focuses on providing volunteers with the infrastructure and a minimal set of rules to manage their projects. The projects itself remain almost autonomous.
Apache Governance - How does the foundation work?
There are about 200 independent projects running under the Apache umbrella. The question may arise, how does the foundation govern its projects? First of all, the ASF is an organization that is run almost entirely by volunteers. In the early days, many of the volunteers were developers which did not like to spend much time with administrative things (who does?), so the organization is structured in a way that requires little central control but favors autonomy of the projects which run under its umbrella.
For every project (e.g. Apache HTTP, Apache Hadoop, Apache Commons, Apache Flink, Apache Beam, etc.), there are a Project Management Committee (PMC), Committers, Contributors, and Users.
Project Management Committee (PMC)
The PMC manages a project's community and decides over its development direction. Its most rudimentary and traditional role is to approve releases for a project. In that sense it has a similar function as the original Apache Group which led the development of Apache HTTP Server. When a new project graduates from the Incubator (covered later), the foundation's central instance, the Board, approves the initial PMC which is selected from the PPMC (Podling PMC) formed during incubation. Each PMC elects one PMC member as the PMC Chair which represents the project and writes quarterly reports to the ASF Board. The Chair needs to be approved by the Board.
Through a project's lifetime new PMC members can be elected by the existing PMC. Note that each new PMC member needs to be approved by the Board but this approval is merely formal and there are few instances that a new PMC member is not approved. PMC members do not need the formal permission of the foundation to elect new Committers. PMC members themselves are also Committers. Let's learn about Committers next.
Committers can modify the code base of the project but they can't make decisions regarding the governance of the project. They are trusted by the PMC to work in the interest of the project. When they contribute changes, they commit (thus, the name) these changes to the project. Committers don't only change code but they can also update documentation, write blog posts on the project's website, or give talks at conferences. Committers are selected from the users of the project; more about this process in the Meritocracy section.
Users and Contributors
Users are as important as the developers because they try out the project’s software, report bugs, and request new features. The term is a slightly confusing because, in the Apache world, most users tend to be developers themselves. They are users in the sense that they are using an Apache project for their own work; usually they are not actively developing the Apache software they are using. However, they may also provide patches to the Committers. Users who contribute to a project are called Contributors. Contributors may eventually become Committers.
In the image, the per-project entities are represented as circles. They exist for every project. Note that the user group circle is not depicted in full size because big projects tend to have much more Users than Committers and PMC members.
The ASF does not work without some central services. Here are the most important entities:
Apache members represent the heart of the foundation. They have been referred to as the "shareholders of the ASF" because they are deeply invested in the ASF (not in the financial sense). A prerequisite to becoming a member is to be active in at least one project. To become a member, you have to show interest in the foundation and try to promote its values. The ASF holds membership meetings which are usually held annually. At membership meetings new members can be proposed and subsequently elected. Elected members receive an invitation which they can choose to accept within 30 days. Becoming a member it not merely a recognition for supporting the ASF, but it also grants the right to elect the Board.
The Board of Directors (Board)
The Board takes care of the overall government of the foundation. In particular, it is concerned with legal and financial matters like brand and licensing issues, fundraising, and financial planning. The board is elected by the Apache members annually and is also composed of Apache members. The current board can be viewed here. Note that there is only one central Board for the entire foundation but Board members can be PMC members in different projects.
Officers of the corporation
The Officers of the corporation are the executive part of the administration. They execute the decisions of the board and take care of everyday business. Most of the officers are implicitly officers by being the PMC chair of a project. Additionally, there are dedicated officers for central work of the foundation, e.g. fundraising, marketing, accounting, data privacy, etc.
The support and administration team (INFRA) is the team that runs the Apache infrastructure and provides tools and support for developers. INFRA is the only team at Apache which consists of contractors which are paid for their work. Their work includes running the apache.org web site and the mailing lists which are Apache’s main way of communication. Over time, various other tools and services were created to assist the projects. The main tools available which are used by almost all projects are:
- Web space for the project's websites.
- Mailing lists, for discussing the roadmap of the project, exchanging ideas, or reporting bugs (unwanted software behavior). Typically the mailing lists are divided into a developer and a user mailing list.
- Bug trackers, which help developers to keep track of new features or bugs.
- Version control, which helps developers to keep track of the code changes.
- Build servers, which help to integrate/test new code or changes to existing code.
Founded in 2002, the Incubator is a project at the ASF dedicated to forming (bootstrapping) new Apache projects. The process is the following: People (volunteers, enthusiasts, or company employees) make a proposal to the Incubator. The proposal contains the project name, the list of initial PPMC (Podling PMC) members, and the motivation and goals for the new project. Once the IPMC (Incubator PMC) has discussed the proposal, it holds a vote to decide if the project enters the incubation phase. In the incubation phase, projects carry "incubating" in their names, e.g. "Apache Flink (incubating)"; this is dropped only once they graduate. To graduate, a project has to show that it is mature enough. The Community Development project at the ASF has created a catalogue of criteria called the Maturity Model. It requires having an active community, quality of code, and being legally compliant. Formally, the project needs to prove it fulfils the criteria to the Incubator IPMC which is comprised of Apache members. All existing work donated in the course of entering the incubator and all future work inside the project has to be licensed to the ASF under the Apache License. This ensures that development remains in the open-source according to the Apache philosophy. More about incubation on the official website.
Meritocracy - How are decisions made?
The Apache Software Foundation uses the term "meritocracy" to describe how it governs itself. Going back to the ancient Greeks, meritocracy was a political system to put those into power which proved that they were motivated, put effort into their work, and were able to help a project. The core of this philosophy can be found throughout history from ancient China to medieval Europe and is still present in many of today’s cultures in the sense that effort, increased responsibility, and service to a part of society ought to pay off in terms of power of decision, social status, or money.
Meritocracy in the Apache Software Foundation denotes that people who either work in the interest of the foundation or a project get promoted. Users who submit patches may be offered Committer status. Comitters who are drive a project, may gain PMC status. PMC members active across projects and taking part in the foundation's work may earn the Member status.
Decision-making within the foundation and projects are typically performed using Consensus. Consensus can be "lazy" which implies that even a few people can drive a discussion and make decisions for the entire community as long as nobody objects. The discussions have to be held in public on the mailing list. For instance, if a Committer decides to introduce a new feature X, she may do so by proposing the feature on the mailing list. If nobody objects, she can go ahead and develop the feature. If lazy consensus does not work because an argument cannot be settled, a majority based vote can be started.
Meritocracy and "lazy" Consensus are the core principles for governance within the Apache Software Foundation. Meritocracy ensures that new people can join those already in power. "Lazy" Consensus creates the opportunity to split up decision-making among the group such that it doesn't always require the action of all members of the community.
The Apache License - A license for the world of open-source
The Apache license is very permissive in the sense that source code modifications are not required to be open-sourced (made publicly available) even when the source code is distributed or sold to other entities. This is in contrast to “Copyleft” licenses like the GNU Public License (GPL) which, upon redistribution, requires public attribution and publication of changes made to the original source code. The Apache license was first derived from the BSD license which is similarly permissive. The reason for this was that the Apache HTTP Server was originally licensed under the BSD license.
The current version of the Apache License is 2.0, released in January 2004. The changes made since the initial release are only minor but they set the prerequisite for its prevalence. At first, the license was only available to Apache projects. Due to the success of the Apache model, people also wanted to use the license outside the foundation. This was made possible in version 2.0. Also, the new version made it possible to combine GPL code with Apache licensed code. In this case, the resulting product would have to be licensed under the GPL to be compatible with the GPL license. Another change for version 2.0 was to make inclusion of the license in non Apache licensed projects easier and require explicit patent grants for patent-relevant parts.
The ASF today is not the small group that it used to be back in 1999. At the time of this writing, the Apache Software Foundation hosts 51 podlings in the Incubator and 199 top-level committees (PMCs). This amounts to almost 300 projects (latest statistics). Note that, a PMC may decide to host multiple projects if necessary. For instance, the Apache Commons PMC has split up the different parts of the Apache Commons library into separate projects (e.g. CLI, Email, Daemon, etc.). 50 of the 300 projects have been retired and are now part of Apache Attic, the project which hosts all retired projects. The above graph is taken from https://projects.apache.org.
The Apache Software Foundation regularly organizes conferences around the world called ApacheCon. These conferences are dedicated to the Apache community or certain topics like Big Data or IoT. It is a place to meet community members and learn about the latest ideas and trends within the global Apache community. Apart from the official conferences, there are conferences on Apache software organized by companies or external organization, e.g. Strata, FlinkForward, Kafka Summit, Spark Summit.
Here's a list of some projects that I came across in the past. I grouped them into categories for a better overview. I realize you might not know a lot of the projects but maybe this list can be the starting point to discover more about these Apache projects :)
Query Tools / APIs
- HTTP (the one!)
Apache - A Successful Open-Source Development Model
My first attempt to learn more about Apache goes back several years. I was using the Apache License while working on Scalaris at Zuse Institute Berlin. I realized that the license was somehow connected to the Apache Software Foundation but I didn't really understand the depth of this relationship until I started working on Apache Flink with dataArtisans. Besides the official homepage of the foundation, relatively little information was available on the Internet about the foundation and its projects. In hindsight, the best source of information was to read the email archives, get to know other people at the ASF, and become a volunteer myself :)
When I originally wrote this post I couldn’t find an introductory guide to the ASF. So I decided to do a bit of research myself and tried to write down what I had learned working on Apache projects. I hope that I could provide an overview of the ASF and show you how significant the foundation has been for the open-source software development.
Thank you for reading this article. Feel free to write me an email if I got something wrong or you would like to comment on anything.
Thank you Roman Shaposhnik, Shane Curcuru, Dave Fisher, and Sally Khudairi for your comments which were very helpful to revise this post for the 20th anniversary of the ASF.
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"Success at Apache" is a monthly blog series that focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/category/SuccessAtApache
Posted at 02:15AM Mar 26, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
The Apache Way to Sustainable Open Source Success
The Apache Way defines Open Source in terms of both a legal and a social framework for collaboration. It helps others understand what makes Open Source powerful and how participants are expected to behave. In this post we will examine The Apache Way in the context of the Foundation's mission:
"The mission of the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is to provide software for the public good. We do this by providing services and support for many like-minded software project communities consisting of individuals who choose to participate in ASF activities."
Let's dissect this mission statement.
"Provide Software for the Public Good"
Key points in this section:
- We produce software that is non-excludable and non-rivalrous
- Use of the software in any context does not reduce its availability to others
- Users and contributors have no committed responsibility to the foundation, our projects or our communities
- Use of a license that conforms to the Open Source Definition is necessary but not sufficient to deliver on our mission
Investopedia defines a public good as "a product that one individual can consume without reducing its availability to another individual, and from which no one is excluded." On the surface, this is a good definition for our use of the term. However, there is a nuance in our use. Our mission is not to produce "public goods" but to "provide software for the public good".
To understand why this is important, one needs to think about what motivates the ASF to produce software that is a public good.
Open Source software can be digitally copied and reused in an unlimited number of ways. Every user can modify it for their specific needs. They can combine it with other software. They can design innovative new products and services using it and can make a living from the proceeds. This is all possible without impacting other people's use of the software. As such, the ASF produces software that can be used for the public good in many different ways.
To allow us to deliver on this part of the mission, it is critical that we adopt a license that uses the law to protect the software curated here at the Foundation. For us that license is the Apache License, Version 2. In addition, we adopt an inbound licensing policy that defines which licenses are allowable on software reused within Apache projects. This policy can be summarized as:
- The license must meet the Open Source Definition (OSD).
- The license, as applied in practice, must not impose significant restrictions beyond those imposed by the Apache License 2.0.
This means that you can be assured that software curated by projects within The Apache Software Foundation is both a public good and for the public good. You can use Apache software for any purpose and you have no responsibility to the Foundation or the project to contribute back (though as addressed in the next section, it is often in your interests to do so).
It is important to recognize that there are software projects out there that adopt our license but do not adopt our inbound licensing policy. Such projects may bring restrictions that are not covered by our license; therefore, it is important to carefully examine the licensing policies of these projects. Using the Apache License alone may not provide you with the same options a Foundation project provides.
Apache projects are successful, in large part, because of our diligence with respect to clearly-defined licensing policies. Such diligence makes it much easier for downstream users to understand what they can and cannot do with Apache software. The Apache License is deliberately permissive to ensure that everyone has an opportunity to participate in Open Source within the ASF or elsewhere. Modifications of our license are allowed, but modified licenses are neither the Apache License nor affiliated with or endorsed by The Apache Software Foundation. No modified license can be represented as such. Modified licenses that use the Apache name are strictly disallowed, as they are both confusing to users and undermine the Apache brand.
While we recognize that there are many ways to license software, whether Open Source or otherwise, we assert that only projects that use both our license (unmodified) and our inbound licensing policy truly follow and adhere to The Apache Way.
While an OSD-approved license and associated policies are necessary for successful Open Source production, they are not sufficient. They provide a legal framework for the production of Open Source, but they do not provide a social framework, which brings us to the second sentence of our mission:
"The mission of the Apache Software Foundation is to provide software for the public good. We do this by providing services and support for many like-minded software project communities of individuals who choose to contribute to Apache projects."
"Like-Minded Software Project Communities of Individuals"
Key points in this section:
- The Apache Way provides a governance model designed to create a social framework for collaboration
- The Apache Software Foundation develops communities, and those communities develop software
- ASF project communities develop and reuse software components that in turn may be reused in products
- Users of ASF software often build products and services using our software components
- Our model, and others like it, have produced some of the largest and longest-lived Open Source projects that have literally revolutionized the industry
There is a lot packed into these few words. It is an understanding of these words that makes the difference between software that is under an Open Source license and software that reaches sustainability through The Apache Way. These words underscore the fact that the Foundation does not directly produce software. That's right, The Apache Software Foundation, with upwards of $8Bn of software code, does not directly produce software. Rather than focus on software, we focus on the creation of and support of collaborative communities; the software is an intentional by-product.
Our like-minded project communities come together because they share common problems that can be addressed in software. As the saying goes, "a problem shared is a problem halved". By bringing together individuals with their unique ideas and skills, we break down barriers to collaboration.
The Apache Way is carefully crafted to create a social structure for collaboration, which complements the legal framework discussed above. Where the legal framework ensures an equal right to use the software, The Apache Way ensures an equal ability to contribute to the software. This is critically important to the long term sustainability of Open Source software projects. This social structure for collaboration is missing from many non-Apache projects, yet a robust social structure is invariably a key component in long-term successful projects outside of the ASF.
The Apache Way is fully inclusive, open, transparent and consensus-based. It promotes vendor neutrality to prevent undue influence (or control) from a single company. It ensures that any individual with a valuable contribution is empowered, and it seeks to assure that a project remains sustainable despite inevitable changes in community membership over time.
Apache projects typically produce software components that can be combined with other software (of any license) in different ways to solve different problems. This provides plenty of opportunity for participants to collaborate within a given software project independent of their relationship outside the Foundation. This is very different from the idea of licensing your product as a whole under an Open Source license. Our model offers more opportunities for reuse which, in turn, increase the pool of individuals likely to contribute to the project.
In addition, our merit-based system seeks to ensure that as people come and go, for whatever reason, there is always someone to take their place. As a result, some ubiquitous Apache projects have existed for over 20 years and helped commercialize the World Wide Web; while dozens of newer projects have defined industry segments such as Big Data and IoT (Internet of Things).
A core tenet of The Apache Way is "Community Over Code", which encapsulates our deep belief that a healthy community is a far higher priority than good code. A strong community can always rectify a problem with the code, whereas an unhealthy community will likely struggle to maintain a codebase in a sustainable manner. Healthy communities ensure the Foundation has the stability to thrive for the next 20 years and beyond. Apache projects do not have the problem of scaling that others, who focus only on the legal frameworks of Open Source, suffer from. If you look around at projects that have grown up alongside the Apache projects, you will see a similar focus on scaling the governance model. This is no accident.
Why this is Important
Software is a critical part of any modern economy. It touches every part of every life in the developed world, and is increasingly transforming everyday life, from womb to grave, everywhere.
At The Apache Software Foundation, we believe that every developer has their personal motivations for building software. We celebrate their right to choose when and how they build their software, including their right to use a non-open license.
We will not dictate what is best for developers or for the software industry.
We care about the provision of software that enables our users, our contributors, and the general public to decide what is best for them.
We welcome you to use our software and contribute to our projects -- or not. It's up to you.
We ask that you leave commercial interests at the door.
Countless organizations are proving that their team members who collaborate in a vendor-neutral environment often apply Open Innovation processes (such as The Apache Way) to their work. This helps create internal efficiencies and lays the groundwork for new external opportunities that may provide additional added benefits.
Bringing only your intention of contributing what best serves the greater Apache community reinforces trust in the people and projects behind the Apache brand, and helps us realize our mission of providing software for the public good.
We learn together and work together to deliver the best software we can.
Apache software is available for all.
The freedom to choose is what makes the Foundation and Apache projects so strong.
The software industry has changed and continues to change. The ways software is delivered to end users have changed. Some of the leaders in our industry have retired and new leaders have emerged. But some things have not changed. Our model of collaborative software development, through a combination of a licensing and social framework, remains one of the most successful models of software production.
Increasing the number of users, even those who do not contribute to code, should be seen as a benefit, not a problem, in Open Source. More users present an opportunity. At Apache, more users means more success since they are our future contributors.
As a US 501(c)(3) public charitable organization, The Apache Software Foundation helps individuals and organizations understand how Open Source at scale works in a highly competitive market. For more than two decades our focus has not been on producing software, but rather mentoring communities who produce software. The Apache Way advances sustainable Open Source communities: everything we do is Open Source so all kinds of users can benefit from our experience. Apache is for everyone.
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Posted at 01:18PM Mar 19, 2019 by Sally in General | |
Apache Software Foundation Platinum Sponsor Profile: Leaseweb
with Robert van der Meulen, Global Product Strategy Lead at Leaseweb
Robert is Global Product Strategy Lead at Leaseweb. Fascinated by technology, Robert studied computer sciences, and after his studies, he delved into the then relatively young and rapidly developing internet technology. He soon understood that the internet would be at the center of almost everything we do and wanted to be part of it. Robert is passionate about using technology to improve people's lives. He contributed to the Debian project as a developer later introduced Apache CloudStack in Leaseweb and has been active in the open source community for quite some time. During his 9 years at Leaseweb, he worked hard to make sure digital transformation, from how we communicate to how we do business, is part of the company mission. Follow @Leaseweb on Twitter.
"Many Apache projects are being built by – mostly – volunteers and motivated individuals, and the world can use, change and develop all of those. It's important to support the people that make this possible."
How did Leaseweb's work with Open Source begin?
Support for foundations such as the ASF is important because those foundations are important :-) . Any big open source project at some point needs the infrastructure to continue to run – and it's great if a project can rely on an organization like the ASF for that infrastructure so the focus can be on making the project great. Open source projects can grow and be more successful if they can more easily deal with governance, financials and administration, as well as tangible infrastructure and tools. Helping an organization like the ASF helps the ASF projects all over, which has an impact on the software we use as part of our products.
What sets the ASF apart from other software foundations or consortia?
A number of our leading Cloud products are based on Apache software. We use Apache CloudStack for various private cloud and VPS offerings, and those platforms are continually growing and evolving – and we keep adding more with most of the new locations we open. Along with the CloudStack platforms, hosting environments obviously have many deployments using Apache web servers. Within our technical teams we consume lots of different Apache projects and actively contribute to a number of them (we have a dedicated CloudStack team that includes one of the Apache CloudStack PMC members). Every software solution has its limits, and obviously this goes for CloudStack too – but also we're happy we can change or help change the things that could be better.
It feels great! It's important to, if you have the opportunity, give something back. Many Apache projects are being built by – mostly – volunteers and motivated individuals, and the world can use, change and develop all of those. It's important to support the people that make this possible.
Are there any other thoughts on the experience of being a large-scale donor that you would like to share? What else do we need to know?
Not much. I personally really enjoy seeing what happens with the support we provide – what projects it makes possible, what things it makes more easy or better. Tangible insight in the results is a big motivator as well as a proof point.
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Sponsors of The Apache Software Foundation such as Leaseweb enable the all-volunteer ASF to ensure its 300+ community-driven software products remain available to billions of users around the world at no cost, and to incubate the next generation of Open Source innovations. For more information sponsorship and on ways to support the ASF, visit http://apache.org/foundation/contributing.html .
Posted at 02:04PM Mar 18, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: Growing with the ASF
by Phil Steitz
I got involved at the ASF in 2002, back in the wild and wooly Apache Jakarta days. In my day job, I was responsible for the team introducing Java technology at a large financial services company.
One of the first things we built was an MVC (model-view-controller) framework for Web applications. We were very proud of it and it worked great in production, but it was hard for us to keep ahead of the feature requests from the many development teams who were using it. One evening, someone said, "Hey, there is this Struts thing that is very similar to what we do and it has some of these things already." I went home and found my way to the Jakarta Web site and downloaded the latest source release.
One thing led to another and the next thing I knew I was asking questions on the struts user mailing list as we started playing with the software and seeing what it would take to convert our apps to use it. After a few months, I found myself answering questions on-list as well and I finally got up the nerve to submit my first patch, which was a documentation fix. At the time, the Apache Struts community was struggling to release version 1.0. I looked around to see what I could do to help and found my way to Apache Commons Pool and DBCP, which Struts was trying to use to replace its built-in connection pool. What I found there was some brilliant but inscrutable code hiding some nasty bugs that Struts needed fixed. At that time, I did not have the Java skills to solve the problems, but I resolved to come back when I did and I watched as others developed workarounds that enabled the Struts community to move forward. I found a welcoming community in Commons and some problems that I could help with. I did eventually make it back to Commons Pool and DBCP, serving as RM for quite a few releases.
During this same timeframe, my $dayjob career was advancing rapidly, thanks in no small part to my aggressive introduction of Open Source software and practices, which was uncommon at the time in financial services. We brought in some ASF committers and their companies to help us build a development pipeline and tooling that was ahead of its time. We applied the Contributor - Committer - PMC member concept to developing enterprise technology standards and strategy. We developed the concept of "earned authority" in technology decision-making, modeled after the idea of publicly earned merit at the ASF. My leadership approach was profoundly influenced by my experience at the ASF, and continues to be to this day. Not a day goes by at work when I do not push for more transparency, more eyeballs on code and more focus on community collaboration and genuine appreciation of diverse viewpoints. I am very grateful to the many ASF community members who have helped me develop as a leader.
Through the years I've met other Apache committers with similar experiences: welcoming projects, friendly communities and great opportunities for personal growth. I’m pleased to see how the ASF has grown and continued to evolve. Every day new contributors join us and new leaders regularly emerge to help guide our communities and the Foundation overall. We all benefit from our experience here and the Foundation becomes stronger as a result.
Phil Steitz is Chairman of the Board of The Apache Software Foundation. He has been an ASF committer since 2003 and a member since 2005. He served for 4 years as Vice President, Apache Commons. Phil also currently serves as Chief Technology officer of Nextiva, a cloud-based business communications company. He has previously held C-level technology leadership positions at multiple software and financial services companies.
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"Success at Apache" is a monthly blog series that focuses on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/category/SuccessAtApache
Posted at 09:19PM Mar 05, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: For Love or Money: Volunteer vs. Professional Open Source
EDITOR'S NOTE: "Success at Apache" reflects diverse, personal experiences from our community members, with particular focus on the people and processes behind why the ASF "just works". The post below is the result of a discussion with the author that originated in early September 2018 and remained unpublished as its tone deviates from the general tenor of this series.Over the past few months, this topic has increased in visibility and relevance with the greater community, and we have made an exception in publishing due its timeliness and representation of the evolution of Open Source communities, both within and without Apache.
A few weeks ago, a colleague asked me what I believed to be the biggest threat facing Open Source today. I answered that I think it's full-time Open Source developers, and the effect they have on part-time volunteer developers.
Long ago (it actually hasn't been very long, it just seems that way sometimes) Open Source was developed primarily by part-time hobbyist developers, working on their evenings and weekends on things that they were passionate about. Sure, there were full-time developers, but they were in the minority. Those of us working a few hours on the weekends envied them greatly. We wished that we, too, could get paid to do the thing that we love.
Now, 20 years on, the overwhelming majority of Open Source development is done by full-timers, working 9-5 on Open Source software. And those who are working nights and weekends are often made to feel that they are less important than those that are putting in the long hours.
Most of the time, this is unintentional. The full-timers are not intentionally marginalizing the part-timers. It just happens as a result of the time that they're able to put into it.
Imagine, if you will, that you're an "evenings-and-weekends" contributor to a project. You have an idea to add a new feature, and you propose it on the mailing list, as per your project culture. And you start working on it, a couple of hours on Friday evening, and then a few more hours on Saturday morning before you have to mow the lawn and take your kids to gymnastics practice. Then there's the cross country meet, and next thing you know, it's Monday morning, and you're back at work.
All week you think about what you're going to do next weekend.
But, Friday evening comes, and you `git pull`, and, lo and behold, one of the full-timers has taken your starting point, turned it in a new direction, completed the feature, and there's been a new release of the project. All while you were punching the clock on your unrelated job.
This is great for the product, of course. It moves faster. Users get features faster. Releases come out faster.
But, meanwhile, you have been told pretty clearly that your contribution wasn't good enough. Or, at the very least, that it wasn't fast enough.
The Cost of Professionalism
And of course there are lots of other benefits, too. Open Source code, as a whole, is probably better than it used to be, because people have more time to focus. The features are more driven by actual use cases, since there's all sorts of customer feedback that goes into the road map. But the volunteerism that made Open Source work in the first place is getting slowly squelched.
This is happening daily across the Open Source world, and MOST of it is unintentional. People are just doing their jobs, after all.
We are also starting to see places where projects are actively shunning the part timers, because they are not pulling their weight. Indeed, in recent weeks I've been told this explicitly by a prominent developer on a project that I follow. He feels that the part timers are stealing his glory, because they have their names on the list of contributors, but they aren't keeping up with the volume of his contributions.
But, whether or not it is intentional, I worry about what this will do to the culture of open source as a whole. I do not in any way begrudge the full-timers their jobs. It's what I dreamed of for *years* when I was an evenings-and-weekends open source developer, and it's what I have now. I am *thrilled* to be paid to work full time in the Open Source world. But I worry that most new Open Source projects are completely corporate driven, and have none of the passion, the scratch-your-own-itch, and the personal drive with which Open Source began.
While most of the professional Open Source developers I have worked with in my years at Red Hat have been passionate and personally invested in the projects that they work on, there's a certain percentage of them for whom this is just a job. If they were reassigned to some other project tomorrow, they'd switch over with no remorse. And I see this more and more as the years go by. Open Source projects as passion is giving way to developers that are working on whatever their manager has assigned, and have no personal investment whatsoever.
This doesn't in any way mean that they are bad people. Work is honorable.
I just worry about what effect this will have, and what Open Source will look like 20 years from now.
Rich Bowen has been doing open source-y stuff since about 1995, and has been a member of the Apache Software Foundation since 2002. He currently serves on the ASF Board of Directors. By day, he's the CentOS Community Manager, working for Red Hat. Read Rich's earlier post, "Success at Apache: Wearing Small Hats".
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Posted at 03:18PM Feb 05, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Apache Software Foundation Gold Sponsor Profile: Bloomberg
with Kevin Fleming, Head of Open Source Community Engagement and Member of the CTO Office at Bloomberg
Kevin has spent more than 20 years in the technology industry. In 2004, he started a VOIP service provider company and chose Asterisk as his platform. 9 months later he was offered a position at Digium to work on Asterisk full-time. After seven years of developing and managing the Asterisk project, and helping to design and build the Asterisk SCF project, he moved on to Bloomberg LP, where he works with various teams to help produce and support Bloomberg's open software, used by its customers and partners to integrate with the Bloomberg Terminal. Follow @realkpfleming and @TechAtBloomberg on Twitter.
“ASF's very explicit statement that every participant
in a project is participating personally is really
a big differentiating factor to the other models.”
How did Bloomberg's work with Open Source begin?
We're pleased to be able to participate and encourage more companies to sponsor the Apache Software Foundation. Everyone wins when everyone collaborates.
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Sponsors of The Apache Software Foundation such as Bloomberg enable the all-volunteer ASF to ensure its 300+ community-driven software products remain available to billions of users around the world at no cost, and to incubate the next generation of Open Source innovations. For more information sponsorship and on ways to support the ASF, visit http://apache.org/foundation/contributing.html .
Posted at 02:25AM Jan 15, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: Accidentally Finding Awesome
Posted at 01:16PM Jan 07, 2019 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: Cookie Monster
by Isabel Drost-Fromm
As a researcher interested in machine learning, Web- and social graphs I joined the Nutch mailing lists back in 2005 when the project was still on SourceForge. I started tinkering with Nutch Writeables to store the data I needed for my analysis – something that today some may know as Hadoop Writeables – the Nutch wiki still has a link to the material that I could get published out of those experiments: https://wiki.apache.org/nutch/AcademicArticles
After leaving academia I remained on the Nutch and Lucene mailing lists - until one day I saw the idea of an "Apache Text" project mentioned: https://lists.apache.org/thread.html/ac22faddbef946b66d544e590fe1b2a54b60215c98cc38a2f995ee06@1176254016@%3Cdev.lucene.apache.org%3E ... I got in touch with Grant Ingersoll, over the course of half a year that vague idea was turned into a plan to have a scalable machine learning project at Apache: Scalable in terms of community, dataset size but also commercially friendly when it comes to licensing – Apache Mahout was created.
Some ideas turn into something with a life on its own. The story I'm going to tell has little to do with great technical or economic achievements that were made with software developed at The Apache Software Foundation. However it has a lot to do with the kind of cross community links that exist between projects at Apache. It also has a lot to do with the fact that there are people active in Apache projects for whom the project is more than merely a day job.
But let's start at the beginning: Little over a year ago, in April or May 2017 Stefan Rudnitzki, one of my then-new colleagues at Europace AG was showing me around the office – mentioning in particular that there's space for meetups of 100 up to 200 people. It was the year when it was unclear whether or not there would be an ApacheCon EU. The combination of those two pieces of information put an interesting idea in our heads: Why not pull ASF interested people to Berlin and have them discuss cross-community, behind-the-scenes, OSS economics, decentralized project management, coordination of work without discretionary power topics?
In a first step we ran a rough version of the idea past a handful of friends at Apache – and received encouragement. The idea got bigger, new aspects were added and we thought "Let's get more specific!".
In a working backwards model the next thing that was written was a press release (in big, bold, red letters marked as "draft, imaginary, DO NOT PUBLISH!!!!!!!") describing a conference on all things open source behind the scenes. The format helped identify important open question marks – like:
- "We don't have a name for the event yet!"
- "We need to decide on a date."
- "We need to come up with a clearer list of topics to cover."
- "What's our target audience?"
- "If this is a full day event – what will we do about catering?"
What helped me personally was having learnt from Sally in her ASF media training what a real press release actually should look like.
As for the name that was found missing in the initial press release draft: After weeks of trying several approaches to come up with a catchy name, I went to pick up my child from kindergarten. What caught my eye was a poster announcing a beneficial concert to collect donations for better equipment and toys – an *a capella* concert: .oO(FOSS A Capella?) .oO(FOSS Backstage?)
The press release formatted version of the vision was first run by Europace – though people here are fairly regularly running after hours meetups, hosting an entire full-day conference is a slightly different scale. After the idea had been met with approval here, it was run by the Apache Community Development mailing list – which we used to keep current planning status transparent and public.
With the idea out in the open it grew beyond something that can easily be run as a small side project. Years ago to create Berlin Buzzwords I had been working together with an event agency called newthinking communications GmbH. They were founded in 2003 by Andreas Gebhard and Markus Beckedahl in the spirit to create a network on the interface between digital technologies and society. Today, the focus lies in the organisation of events such as Berlin Buzzwords and FOSS Backstage as well as content management services (based on Drupal) for NGOs and political parties as well the conferences named above. So I got in touch with newthinking – and was delighted to receive "Sure, we are going to help out" as an answer.
So, what about the cookies? One of the first offers I received after publishing that we were to run a FOSS Backstage full day Micro Summit in November 2017 was: "If you need support with providing cookies for the coffee break – I'm happy to bake some, if there's no more than 40 attendees." Half jokingly I responded that I would add another 40 cookies, lest someone sends me a 3D model of an ASF feather cookie cutter. Lo and behold – the next thing I know is that someone sends me a model file for an ASF cookie cutter (which by now even made it to the then VP trademarks – who was interested in putting it to good use himself). Just a few weeks later I attended Open Source Summit in Prague. Guess what happened? Someone who knew I'd be there brought some printed cookie cutters with him from Australia.
In the meantime we had a one day / two tracks FOSS Backstage Micro Summit in November 2017 kindly hosted by Europace AG. I was able to talk several people into baking ASF cookies (including sugar coatings in the appropriate colours). In addition with the support of both, Newthinking communications GmbH, the ASF planners, and the ASF community development PMC an Apache Roadshow was co-located with the actual FOSS Backstage in June this year – a two day, multiple tracks event featuring Danese Cooper and Shane Coughlan for keynotes, a host of speakers with all sorts of relevant and inspiring stories to share, as well as fishbowl discussions on topics like Open Source monetization. One of the loveliest feedback we received: "This doesn't feel like an inaugural conference, given the professional organisation. You surely did manage to successfully invite people from a great variety of FOSS projects and foundations."
Having a press release draft ready was helpful when starting to drum up interest for the real event: With all details filled in, the "Draft/ Do not share"-warning removed it ended up getting sent to the press and published for real.
We started with a scope of all things FOSS economics, decentralised organisation, cross-cultural team-building, volunteer motivation, licensing and legal. In 2019 we want to align these aspects towards InnerSource, work collaboration principles and modern work models so that teams, companies and organisations can learn from the experiences we all make while working on Open Source projects. We are glad to have the event backed by newthinking GmbH next year again.
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"Success at Apache" is a monthly blog series that focuses on the processes behind why the ASF "just works" https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/category/SuccessAtApache
Posted at 11:41AM Dec 03, 2018 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: Wearing Small Hats
Rich Bowen has been doing open source-y stuff since about 1995, and has been a member of the Apache Software Foundation since 2002. He currently serves on the ASF Board of Directors. By day, he's the CentOS Community Manager, working for Red Hat.
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"Success at Apache" is a monthly blog series that focuses on the processes behind why the ASF "just works" https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/category/SuccessAtApache
Posted at 09:21PM Nov 05, 2018 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: carrying forward the benefits
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"Success at Apache" is a monthly blog series that focuses on the processes behind why the ASF "just works" https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/category/SuccessAtApache
Posted at 09:27PM Oct 01, 2018 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache — 赢在 Apache: If it helps others, all the better.
by Sally Khudairi, with contributions by Ignasi Barrera, Von Gosling, Luke Han, Kevin A. McGrail, and Anthony Shaw. Translations by Ted Liu and David Zhenwei Dong.
I became active in The Apache Software Foundation at its inception in 1999. I am responsible for elevating the ASF's visibility, and supporting the Foundation by counseling 350+ Apache projects and their communities in the areas of messaging, outreach, and engagement.
As a global, virtual, and diverse community, the ASF relies on countless Apache Members, Committers, and Contributors to help share our values and explain our processes with others. We have grown from a single project to hundreds of projects and communities https://projects.apache.org/committees.html?date through "The Apache Way": an inclusive process and judicious reinforcement of "Community Over Code".
We launched the "Success at Apache" blog series following the Media & Analyst Training at ApacheCon Seville in 2016. I asked ASF Board Member and VP Brand Management Mark Thomas his opinion on what he thinks are some of the reasons that the ASF "just works". His immediate response was: "project independence". I asked if he'd put that in writing —in his own words— as our community members' personal experiences help others see The Apache Way through their unique perspectives. Shortly afterwards, we published "Project Independence" https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/entry/success_at_apache_project_independence and "Success at Apache" was born https://blogs.apache.org/foundation/feed/entries/atom?cat=SuccessAtApache .
Whilst English is the ASF's official language, localization often helps foster understanding, encourage adoption, and onboard new contributors more quickly. A while back, ASF Member Ted Liu told me that he and some of his coworkers had translated a handful of our "Success at Apache" blog posts into Mandarin Chinese. He asked if it would be useful to us.
Why yes, of course: new approaches to promote and propagate The Apache Way are always appreciated.
. . .
- Contributing to Open Source Even with a High-pressure Job, by Anthony Shaw, contributor to over 20 Open Source projects, including Apache Libcloud. Translation by Ted Liu.
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Ted's action reflects one of our greatest successes at Apache: the mindset of "If this is helpful to me, that's good (= "scratch your own itch"). If it helps others, all the better."
After all, we didn't become the world's largest Open Source foundation by not being helpful. There's always something needing to be done in an all-volunteer community: if you'd like to help the ASF, we will happily accept your assistance where possible. Plus, helping others feels pretty great.
Whether contributing code and writing documentation http://apache.org/foundation/getinvolved.html , mentoring community members http://community.apache.org/ , supporting the ASF through an individual donation or corporate sponsorship http://apache.org/foundation/contributing.html , or serving in myriad other ways https://helpwanted.apache.org/ , we thank you.
For an immersive, rewarding experience with dozens of Apache projects and hundreds of user and developer community members, consider joining us at ApacheCon in Montreal 24-27 September 2018 http://apachecon.com/ . This year's event is extra special, as we're celebrating the 20th Anniversary of ApacheCon —huzzah! All are welcome https://blogs.apache.org/comdev/entry/my-first-experience-of-apachecon
We look forward to seeing you there and sharing your Success at Apache.
Sally Khudairi is Vice President of Marketing & Publicity at The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) where, in 2002, she was elected its first female and non-technical Member. Over her 25-year career in the Web, Khudairi has been lauded as a dynamic communications strategist and expert in next-generation innovations, and has played an integral role in building campaigns for some of the industry’s most prominent standards and organizations. Prior to launching the ASF in 1999, Khudairi was deputy to Sir Tim Berners-Lee as Head of Communications at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), overseeing the launch of 17 specifications that include PNG, CSS, HTML4 and XML. She is Managing Director/Luxury & Technology Practice lead at HALO Worldwide and Founder/Chief Marketing Officer at OptDyn.
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Posted at 02:03AM Sep 05, 2018 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: the Apache Legal Shield - a pragmatic view
by Bertrand Delacretaz
I became active in the ASF in 2001 via Gianugo Rabellino -- he was the one who started the discussions with Apache Fop about me donating the jfor XLS-FO to RTF converter that I had developed earlier. It was already too late to uninvent RTF which is a terrible format, but I digress. I am currently a member of the Board of Directors of the ASF and have been doing a lot of thinking (and presentations) about what makes the ASF tick in terms of collaboration and Shared Neurons.
Section 12.1 of the Apache Bylaws https://www.apache.org/foundation/bylaws describes the legal protection that the Apache Software Foundation provides to our directors, officers and members.
I'm not a lawyer by far, however, and that language is a bit hard for me to parse, so I thought I'd try to clarify what this means for our contributors and learn more about it in the process.
If you go into detail there's certainly more to it but I think the items below are the absolute basics that every PMC member https://www.apache.org/foundation/how-it-works.html should understand in order to benefit from the legal shield that the Foundation provides.
What is a "Legal Shield" ?
An important goal of the Apache Bylaws and policies is to isolate our contributors from any legal action that might be taken against the Foundation, if they act as specified in those policies.
That's what we mean by "legal shield": a way for our individual volunters to be sheltered from legal suits directed at the Foundation's projects, as mentioned in our "How the ASF works" document https://www.apache.org/foundation/how-it-works.html .
Acts of the Foundation
The first thing is to make sure our software releases are "Acts of the Foundation" as opposed to something that people do in their own name. This is natural if we follow our release policy https://www.apache.org/legal/release-policy.html , which defines a simple release approval process for releasing source code that makes the project's PMC https://www.apache.org/foundation/how-it-works.html responsible for the release, as opposed to our individual contributors and release managers.
This means that if the released software is ever involved in legal action and someone has to testify or produce information as part of a subpoena, or worse, it's the Foundation which is in charge of that and not our individual contributors. These things happen from time to time, not very often but they can represent a lot of work and aggravation that none of us are looking for. The 2011 subpoena to Apache around Java and Android http://www.groklaw.net/articlebasic.php?story=20110509221136468 is just one example of that. Produce documents reflecting all communications between someone and Apache, how fun is that?
The goal of our release process is to make it very clear what an Apache Release is, and also clarify that anyone using our software in other ways, by getting it directly from our code repositories for example, does so at their own risk. If it's not an Apache Release we didn't give it to them, they grabbed it on their own initiative and have to accept the consequences of that.
The Rest is for Contributors
This leads to a second and related item: developer builds, which happen much more often than releases, often daily, and that people can easily download and use.
Those builds are meant for contributors to our projects, to use in development and testing as part of their contribution activities.
To avoid any confusion, it is important to clearly label them as such, and to draw a clear line between them and official Apache Releases. They should only be advertised in places where developers who are part of our communities (as opposed to the general public) can see them, and with suitable disclaimers.
In our world of continuous deployment and automated builds, the lines between what's a release and what's just tagged code that works for someone are often blurred. That's totally fine from a technical point of view, and often desirable when one wants to move fast, but we shouldn't forget about the possible legal implications ot distributing software.
Let's make sure we take advantage of the well-designed Apache Legal Shield that the Foundation provides to us, by strictly following our release policy and clearly specifying what is what in terms of downloadable software.
I never thought I'd write a blog post on a legal topic, so here's the FUN DISCLAIMER: As mentioned, I am not a lawyer by far, and the above should not be considered legal advice - just a pragmatic view that can hopefully help our contributors better understand the related issues. For legal advice, consult your own legal advisor! And if you're thirsty after reading all this, get a drink and give a toast to the ASF and its founders!
Many thanks to the fellow Apache members who provided feedback and additional ideas for this post.
. . .
Bertrand Delacretaz works as a Principal Scientist with the Adobe Research team in Basel, Switzerland. He spends a good portion of his time advocating and implementing Open Development as a way to make geographically dispersed teams more efficient and more fun for his coworkers. Bertrand is also an active Member of the Apache Software Foundation, currently on his tenth term on the Foundation's Board of Directors (Fiscal Year 2018-2019).
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Posted at 12:21AM Aug 07, 2018 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |
Success at Apache: The Apache Way for Executives
by Alex Karasulu
I'm a long time member of the Apache Software Foundation and have been an executive officer of several corporations over the course of the past 20 years. I've co-founded several projects in the community and mentored several others.
The "Apache Way" has benefited several aspects of my life, however I never imagined it would help make me a better executive. Even non-technical executives, in organizations totally outside of the realm of technology, can benefit from the Zen of the Apache Way.
Life is hard when you're stupid
I was involved in a number of early dot com startups as an executive, however that was before my involvement with Apache and long before any exposure to the Apache Way. To this day, I remember how opportunistic decisions for short term gains, the lack of collaboration, openness and communication kept causing friction that made my job and ultimately my life much harder than it had to be.
Learning while on the job
Exposure to the philosophy began early even while lurking on mailing lists but picked up more while incubating the Apache Directory Project where I worked with others to grow an active community. Meanwhile, I was the Chief Technology Officer of a large financial services company called Alliance Capital Partners. It was 2002, and the first time I had to conduct myself as a C-Suite executive in an enterprise that was obviously not a technology company. Incidentally, the lack of hands-on coding got me working on a pet project that ultimately became the Apache Directory Server and Apache MINA. The project was medicine to keep me sane and technically up to date. Unbeknownst to me, this would save my career, not as a developer, but as an executive.
The Apache Way makes life easier
The most important and first lesson I learned from the Apache Community was to avoid short term gains that were unsustainable in the long term. This very important core principle derives in part from the concept of "community over code". It does not matter how much code you write, or how good your code is if you cannot get along, compromise, and communicate respectfully with your peers. The code does not write itself, its the community behind it that keeps the code alive. Involving only the most technically proficient contributors should never trump the need to build a sustainable community. I saw projects often suffer from self-centered yet skilled coders added as committers for short term gain at the detriment of a healthy sustainable community. So as a corollary to community over code, avoid short term gains that get in the way of the long term sustainability of an organization's culture. This has immense applications for any executive in both technical and non-technical fields.
While growing my new development organization in this financial services organization, I decided to avoid hiring people that seemed to be very skilled technically but lacked the desire or social skills to collaborate with others. Thanks to experiences at Apache, I could start telling them apart much better than I did before. Also, I was calmer and less anxious when hiring to fill gaps on the team. It was better not to have the resource than to introduce a bad apple onto the team.
This was contrary to how I had operated earlier and started producing great results. The application of this basic principle lead to a solid team that worked better together than ever before in the past. They were able to leverage each others' skills thanks to collaboration to out perform any one skilled developer. This is all thanks to the concept of community over code where social skills, and collaboration were stressed more than technical skills. In the end, being kind, listening, and asking smart questions begets the kind of collaboration needed to build complex software.
Not only did this help with developers, it also worked with teams that did not produce code like project managers under the CTO office. The rule is golden, and IMHO should be applied to any executive's decision making process regardless of the nature of the business or topic at hand.
Inner Source is the Apache Way
Executives drive the architecture and cultural direction of their organizations and the Apache Way provides a solid framework to create healthy foundations through open collaboration, communication and the availability of knowledge for everyone to participate.
Several very successful technology companies have adopted the Apache Way without really realizing they're doing so. In 2000, Tim O'Reilly coined the term Inner Source https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_source to apply Open Source principles to any organization. Tim was essentially talking about applying the Apache Way within organizations. The Apache Way has proven itself with companies like IBM, Google, Microsoft, SAP, PayPal and even financial institutions like Capital One which have adopted the Inner Source methodology which is one and the same.
Without going into the details, of which we the Apache Community are intimately aware (using it daily within our projects), I would like to stress how important the approach is for executives outside of Apache to understand. The Apache Way can save organizations from all out disaster, not to mention billions of dollars by impacting the quality of services and products they produce. Again this does not only apply to companies in technological sectors. Capital One a financial services company has also used Open Source methods for internal projects to be extremely successful https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/using-open-source-methods-for-internal-software-projects .
The Apache Way provides several benefits to executives aware of the approach. Executives can directly integrate the principles of the Apache Way into their own thinking to improve their potential for personal success. However the biggest value comes from the cultural framework it produces for the entire organization, however to leverage it in their organizations, executives must be aware of it. The Apache Way has personally helped me grow as an effective executive and it can help others as well. It also provides a compass for how to properly build effective organizations, not only technical ones.
Alex Karasulu is an entrepreneur with over 25 years of experience in the software industry and a recognized leader in the Open Source community. He is widely known as the original author of the Apache Directory Server, used by IBM both as the foundation of the Rational Directory Server and also integrated into the Websphere Application Server. Alex co-founded several Apache projects, including MINA, and Felix, among others, which, along with their communities, thrive independently past his day-to-day involvement in the projects. He is the founder of Safehaus, where he authored the first low-resource mobile OTP algorithms in Open Source with the OATH community that was later adopted by Google in their Authenticator product. In addition to IBM, Atlassian, Cisco, and Polycom are just a few of the many companies that sell commercial hardware and software solutions that bundle or embed software and products that Alex has created. Alex holds a BSc. in Computer Science and Physics from Columbia University. He is the founder and co-CEO of OptDyn.
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Posted at 03:32PM Jul 09, 2018 by Sally in SuccessAtApache | |